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04.03.09

A Berkeley View of Cloud Computing

Above the Clouds: A Berkeley View of Cloud Computing
Dne 10 února 2009 byl vystaven dokument, který zasluhuje mimořádnou pozornost. Jde o text zpracovaný kolektivem Michael Armbrust etc. z Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley.
Cituji z úvodu k 25-ti stránkovému textu:
"Executive Summary
Cloud Computing, the long-held dream of computing as a utility, has the potential to transform a large part of the IT industry, making software even more attractive as a service and shaping the way IT hardware is designed and purchased. Developers with innovative ideas for new Internet services no longer require the large capital outlays in hardware to deploy their service or the human expense to operate it. They need not be concerned about overprovisioning for a service whose popularity does not meet their predictions, thus wasting costly resources, or underprovisioning for one that becomes wildly popular, thus missing potential customers and revenue. Moreover, companies with large batch-oriented tasks can get results as quickly as their programs can scale, since using 1000 servers for on hour costs no more than using one server for 1000 hours. This elasticity of resources, without paying a premium for large scale, is unprecedented in the history of IT. Cloud Computing refers to both the applications delivered as services over the Internet and the hardware and systems software in the datacenters that provide those services. The services themselves have long been referred to as Software as a Service (SaaS). The datacenter hardware and software is what we will call a Cloud. When a Cloud is made available in a pay-as-you-go manner to the general public, we call it a Public Cloud; the service being sold is Utility Computing. We use the term Private Cloud to refer to internal datacenters of a business or other organization, not made available to the general public. Thus, Cloud Computing is the sum of SaaS and Utility Computing, but does not include Private Clouds. People can be users or providers of SaaS, or users or providers of Utility Computing. We focus on SaaS Providers (Cloud Users) and Cloud Providers, which have received less attention than SaaS Users."
Stručně z obsahu:
- Cloud Computing: An Old Idea Whose Time Has (Finally) Come
- What is Cloud Computing?
- Clouds in a Perfect Storm: Why Now, Not Then?
- Classes of Utility Computing
- Cloud Computing Economics
- Comparing Costs: Should I Move to the Cloud?
Cituji ze závěru článku:
Top 10 Obstacles and Opportunities for Cloud Computing.
In this section, we offer a ranked list of obstacles to the growth of Cloud Computing. Each obstacle is paired with an opportunity—our thoughts on how to overcome the obstacle, ranging from straightforward product development to major research projects. Table 6 summarizes our top ten obstacles and opportunities. The first three are technica obstacles to the adoption of Cloud Computing, the next five are technical obstaclesto the growth of Cloud Computing once it has been adopted, and the last two are policy and business obstacles to the adoption of Cloud Computing."
Number 1 Obstacle: Availability of a Service
Number 2 Obstacle: Data Lock-In
Number 3 Obstacle: Data Confidentiality and Auditability
Number 4 Obstacle: Data Transfer Bottlenecks
Number 5 Obstacle: Performance Unpredictability
Number 6 Obstacle: Scalable Storage
Number 7 Obstacle: Bugs in Large-Scale Distributed Systems
Number 8 Obstacle: Scaling Quickly
Number 9 Obstacle: Reputation Fate Sharing
Number 10 Obstacle: Software Licensing
Zajímavá je část věnovaná ekonomickému pohledu na CC.
Cituji z odstavce věnovaného ekonomice CC:
"Cloud Computing Economics
In this section we make some observations about Cloud Computing economic models:
- In deciding whether hosting a service in the cloud makes sense over the long term, we argue that the finegrained economic models enabled by Cloud Computing make tradeoff decisions more fluid, and in particular the elasticity offered by clouds serves to transfer risk.
- As well, although hardware resource costs continue to decline, they do so at variable rates; for example, computing and storage costs are falling faster than WAN costs. Cloud Computing can track these changes—and potentially pass them through to the customer—more effectively than building one’s own datacenter, resulting in a closer match of expenditure to actual resource usage.
- In making the decision about whether to move an existing service to the cloud, one must additionally examine the expected average and peak resource utilization, especially if the application may have highly variable spikes in resource demand; the practical limits on real-world utilization of purchased equipment; and various operational costs that vary depending on the type of cloud environment being considered."
Celý text je k dispozici na TÉTO adrese.